Inkotanyi: Amateka y’urugamba kuva kuya 1/10

Imyaka 26 irashize u Rwanda rubohowe kandi bikozwe n’abana barwo banze kwihanganira akarengane no guhezwa mu rwababyaye, bitanga batizigamye bamwe bahasiga ubuzima ariko u Rwanda barukura mu ngoyi y’ubutegetsi bw’igitugu n’amacakubiri ndetse banahagarika Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi 1994.

Byose bijya gutangira byahereye ku bukoroni. Abakoroni bageze mu Rwanda (Abadage 1899-1916, Ababiligi 1916-1962) bambuye u Rwanda ubwigenge bwose rwari rufite haba mu rwego rwa politiki, ubukungu n’umuco. Ubutegetsi bw’u Rwanda bwasigaye bukorera inyungu zabo aho gukorera iz’Abanyarwanda.

Aba bakoroni baciyemo ibice Abanyarwanda kugira ngo babone uko babategeka, bigisha amacakubiri mu Banyarwanda, bahimba ko badakomoka hamwe, batanganya ubwigenge, badakwiye gukora imirimo imwe no kwiga amashuri amwe. Igihe cyarageze mu ntangiriro za 1950 Abanyafurika bahagurukiraga kurwanira ubwigenge, Abanyarwanda na bo ntibatanzwe.

Abakoroni ntibyagombaga kubashimisha, bityo mu rwego rwo kurwanya abaharaniraga ubwigenge mu Rwanda bari biganjemo Abatutsi, Ababiligi batangiye gukwirakwiza igitekerezo ko Abatutsi na bo ari abanyamahanga, ko bakomotse muri Abisiniya, bityo bakangurira Abahutu kubatwikira, kubasenyera, kubica no kubamenesha.

Nyamara igihe cyarageze, ko abakoroni bava mu Rwanda, basize u Rwanda ari igihugu kirangwa n’urwikekwe, inzangano, umwiryane, ndetse bamwe mu Banyarwanda bamaze kumeneshwa ngo si Abanyarwanda nk’abandi nk’uko twabibonye hejuru.

Bigeze mu mpera za 1959, ishyaka rya MDR PARMEHUTU ryitabiriye gukomeza gushyira mu bikorwa inyigisho n’igitekerezo cy’abakoroni. Bityo, Abanyarwanda benshi baricwa, amazu yabo aratwikwa, inka ziraribwa, abarokotse ubwo bwicanyi bahungira mu bihugu bikikije u Rwanda, maze umubare munini wabo bahungira mu gihugu cya Uganda, abandi bajya i Burundi, Tanzania, Kongo na Kenya.

Ubutegetsi bw’igitugu n’ibyaburanze

Mu 1962 nyuma y’ubwo bwicanyi bwari buyobowe na MDR PARMEHUTU, iryo shyaka ryahise rigororerwa kuyobora u Rwanda. Kuva ubwo Abanyarwanda ntibatuje, ibibazo byarakomeye, kuko ubutegetsi bwa MDR PARMEHUTU (1962-1973), n’ubwa MRND ya Habyarimana (1973-1994) bwakomeje za nyigisho z’abakoroni. Ntibakemuye ibibazo by’amacakubiri u Rwanda rwari rufite, ahubwo yigishijwe ku mugaragaro.

Ubwo mu gihugu hatangiye kubibwa inzangano mu bagituye, guheza bamwe mu Banyarwanda mu mashuri, mu mirimo no muri politiki. Hariho gusenyera, gutwikira no kwica bamwe mu Banyarwanda abandi bakameneshwa, biza kubyara Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994.

Abanyarwanda bari barirukanywe mu gihugu cyabo nta ko batagize ngo bakigarukemo, nyamara ubutegetsi bwariho burabyanga. Amahanga na yo yashyizeho akayo, yotsa igitutu ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana, bamusaba kureka Abanyarwanda birukanywe mu gihugu cyabo bagataha, ariko ntibyagira icyo bitanga, ahubwo ageza aho avuga ko ‘u Rwanda rwuzuye, ari nk’ikirahuri cyuzuye amazi, ngo uwakongeraho andi yaseseka’.

Hakozwe ibiganiro ndetse n’imishyikirano, ariko byose biba iby’ubusa. Ibi uko byakorwaga, ni ko ubutegetsi bwariho bwakomezaga gukandamiza bamwe mu Banyarwanda bari mu gihugu imbere, maze igice kimwe cy’Abanyarwanda gihezwa mu nzego z’ubuyobozi bw’igihugu no mu iterambere.

Nta demukarasi yarangwaga mu gihugu, Abanyarwanda babaraga ubukeye. Ntibagiraga uruhare mu bibakorerwa, nta gahunda ihamye yo guteza imbere ubukungu yariho, nta kerekezo igihugu cyagiraga, Abanyarwanda bakomeje kuzahazwa n’ubukene, indwara, ubujiji no guhanga amaso imfashanyo z’amahanga.

Inyungu z’abategetsi ni zo zashyirwaga imbere, aho gushyira imbere inyungu z’Abanyarwanda. Ibi ni byo byabyaye umuco wa ruswa, gutonesha, gusesagura umutungo w’igihugu no kuwunyereza.

Hari hasigaye gukoresha imbaraga mu gusubiza agaciro Abanyarwanda

Mu 1979, bamwe mu Banyarwanda barateranye, basuzuma ibibazo byari byugarije u Rwanda, maze biyemeza gushyira hamwe imbaraga zabo mu gutangiza Umutwe wa Politiki witwaga RANU (Rwandese Alliance for National Unity) wari ugamije gukemura ibyo bibazo.

Nyuma yo kubona ko nta bundi buryo nta n’indi nzira yo gukemura ibibazo byari mu Rwanda n’ibyari bifitwe n’Abanyarwanda, bamwe mu Banyarwanda biyemeje guhaguruka, biyemeza gukoresha ingufu.

Abanyarwanda bari barahungiye mu gihugu cya Uganda barimo Maj. Gen. Fred Gisa Rwigema na Paul Kagame, barahagurutse, bakangurira Abanyarwanda gushyira hamwe imbaraga bakabohora igihugu cyabo.

Uku kwishyira hamwe byatumye Abanyarwanda bibumbiye muri RANU bitegura kurwanirira u Rwanda ngo bace akarengane, ivangura, ruswa n’igitugu mu Rwanda. Abana b’Abanyarwanda bajyaga muri RANU bashishikarizwaga gukunda igihugu cyabo no guhora bibuka ko ari bo bazakibohora, bagatozwa kwihangana, gukorana umurava no guhorana disipuline.

Mu 1987, hafashwe ikemezo cyo kwagura RANU, maze Abanyarwanda bose bakunda igihugu, abaharanira demukarasi, amahoro, ubumwe n’iterambere ry’u Rwanda, bahindura RANU iba “Front Patriotique Rwandais Inkotanyi/Rwandase Patriotic Front Inkotanyi” (FPR-Inkotanyi/RPF-Inkotanyi), hari ku wa 25 Ukuboza 1987.

Ni bwo hashyizweho inyandiko-remezo, intego n’imigambi, amategeko-remezo, imyitwarire y’Abanyamuryango ba FPR-Inkotanyi ndetse hashyirwaho n’abakada.

Bigeze mu 1990, habayeho ivugurura ry’inzego z’Umuryango FPR-Inkotanyi, maze hashimangirwa ibikorwa by’ubukangurambaga, imyitozo n’amahugurwa. Inzego nshya zongerewe ingufu, Umuryango kandi uteza imbere imikoranire y’inzego za gisirikare n’iza gisivile. Ubwo Fred Gisa Rwigema ni we wahise atorerwa kuyobora Umuryango FPR-Inkotanyi.

Iki gihe ni bwo Umuryango wegereye abo ari bo bose bahuje umugambi wo gukunda u Rwanda, aho bari hose, abato n’abakuru, abagabo n’abagore, abakize cyangwa abakene, kandi bose si ko bari bahuje imyumvire ya politiki, ahubwo icyo bari bahuriyeho ni ugukunda u Rwanda. Intego yari ihuriweho na bose yari imwe, “Kubohora u Rwanda”, rugasubizwa Abanyarwanda, Umunyarwanda akongera kugira agaciro.

Ku itariki ya 1 Ukwakira 1990 ni bwo FPR yahagurutse, maze itangira urugamba rwo kubohora u Rwanda. Igihe bari bageze i Kagitumba, Maj. Gen. Fred Rwigema, yasobanuye mu magambo make impamvu y’urugamba rw’Inkotanyi, avuga ko mu mateka y’u Rwanda ubuyobozi bubi ari bwo bwazanye amacakubiri n’ibindi bibazo byose byayogoje u Rwanda, kandi ko nta wundi wabibohora Abanyarwanda, uretse Abanyarwanda bakunda igihugu. Gusa, ku ya 2 Ukwakira 1990 Maj. Gen. Rwigema yahise agwa ku rugamba i Kagitumba ho mu Karere ka Nyagatare.

 

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